THE ROYAL SOCIETY-DFID AFRICA CAPACITY BUILDING INITIATIVE PROJECT
Global Project Topic: Harnessing Unsteady Phase-Change Heat Exchange in High-Performance Concentrated Solar Power Systems
Local Research Topic: Numerical Flow Boiling Investigations for Various Mass Flux and Heat Flux Conditions in a Smooth Tube
Principal Investigator : Dr Olabode Olakoyejo
Investigator : Dr Adekunle Adelaja
Investigator : Dr Surajudeen Obayopo
Ph.D Student :Mr Emmanel Osowade
Sponsored by :Royal Society and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) [Africa Capacity Building Initiative].
Electricity availability is a major challenge in Sub-Sahara Africa which includes Nigeria. The enormous population and the huge large expanse in Nigeria is a significant advantage for economic liberation for the country. However, this growth has been corpulently retarded making the so called “giant of Africa” struggle for survival and development. Many investments has been retracted from the economy, industries rapidly vanishing, insecurity everywhere, socio-economic retardation and many more problems has been faced by the over 170 million energy deficient populace of Nigeria.
A global project topic “Harnessing Unsteady Phase-Change Heat Exchange in High-Performance Concentrated Solar Power Systems” has been put up to combat this dreadful and devastating challenge faced by Nigeria and some other part of Sub-Sahara Africa. This project is sponsored by the Royal Society-DFID, United Kingdom under the Africa Capacity Building Initiative Award Scheme. The project involves the consortium of four Universities, namely; Imperial College London, UK; University of Lagos, Nigeria; University of Pretoria, South Africa and the University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
The project is set to ameliorate this power challenge using Concentrated Solar Power System. Typical of a conventional power cycle four process are very important, namely; Evaporation/heat addition (in the Boiler), Expansion (in the Turbine), Heat rejection (in the Condenser) and the Pump which circulate the working fluid in the cycle. University of Lagos, Nigeria has been saddled with the responsibility of looking into the Heat addition (that is the Evaporation/Boiling) process with a research topic “Numerical Flow Boiling Investigations for Various Mass Flux and Heat Flux Conditions in a Smooth Tube”. This work involves using a Numerical Analysis tool to validate and optimize the experimental work undertaken by the partners at the University of Pretoria, South Africa.
A sum of One (1) million pounds has been designated for this project by the sponsor and about Two Hundred and Forty Three thousand, two hundred and eighty (243, 280. 00) pounds has been allotted to the University of Lagos to carry out their own part of the joint research.
The Nigeria team on the research includes Dr. O. T. Olakoyejo (Team Leader and Principal Investigator), Dr. A. O. Adelaja, Dr. S. O. Obayopo and the Ph.Dstudent under mentorship on the program is Mr. E. A. Osowade.
Conclusively, the research results will produce data, correlations and models that will be useful to develop system models that fully describe transient CSP boiler performance which will find wide application both in academics and industries and final contribute to solving the persistent electricity challenge in the Nation and Africa as a whole.
INTERWASTE RESEARCH PROJECT
Synergising International Research Studies into the Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Toxic Organic Chemicals in the Waste Stream (INTERWASTE)
A Marie Skłodowska-Curie Research and Innovation Staff Exchange Project
Project duration: 1st January 2017- 31st December 2020
This project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 734522.
The overall vision of INTERWASTE is to develop scientific understanding of issues related to environmental contamination with toxic and/or hazardous organic chemicals (specifically flame retardants (FRs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs)) arising from their presence in the waste stream. Our central hypothesis is that the presence of such chemicals in the waste stream represents a substantial environmental hazard. INTERWASTE will test this hypothesis by evaluating the extent of environmental contamination attributable to emissions from selected components of the waste stream, and further will evaluate the efficacy of actions to minimise such environmental contamination.
INTERWASTE is co-ordinated by the POPs research group within the School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences at the University of Birmingham, UK and co-ordinated by Professor Stuart Harrad at the University of Birmingham, the programme is centred around 87 research secondmentstotalling 224 researcher months between world-leading research groups both within and outside the EU.
Reflecting its international perspective, INTERWASTE’s 27 partners are from: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Nigeria, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
In Nigeria, the partnering organisation is the Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria – led by Dr TemilolaOluseyi
The relevance of INTERWASTE
Flame Retardants in Waste
INTERWASTE addresses the growing appreciation of the environmental hazard associated with the presence of flame retardant chemicals (FRs) in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and soft furnishings (e.g. sofas and fabrics). As many such items contain FRs at percent levels, UNEP estimates that 20-50 million t WEEE is generated globally every year, illustrate the scale of the problem. The disposal and/or recycling of such materials offer multiple pathways via which FRs may be emitted to the environment.
Environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals and chemicals present in personal care products (PPCPs)
The quantities of such PPCPs entering the environment (e.g. via the sewerage system either as the parent compounds or metabolites) are projected to increase substantially for the foreseeable future, given the increasing and ageing global population. Concerns about such environmental contamination are compounded by the inherent biological activity of pharmaceuticals in particular, which raise concerns about both human and wildlife exposure that may arise via the presence of PPCPs and their metabolites in the environment.
Further details can be found here: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/gees/research/projects/interwaste/index.aspx
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